Approach to the Patient With Congenital Hypothyroidism

Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Quoc, Adrien Nguyen; Polak, Michel ✉; Carre, Aurore

Angol nyelvű Szakcikk (Folyóiratcikk) Tudományos
  • SJR Scopus - Clinical Biochemistry: D1
  • Klinikai orvostan
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most frequent neonatal endocrine disorder and the most common preventable cause of development delay and growth failure if diagnosed and treated early. The thyroid is the first endocrine gland to develop during embryonic life and to be recognizable in humans. Thyroid development and maturation can be divided into 2 phases: a first phase of embryogenesis and a second phase of folliculogenesis and differentiation with thyroid hormone production at the final steps. Regulation of the thyroid function requires normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, which occurs during the embryonic and neonatal period. Defects in any of steps of thyroid development, differentiation, and regulation lead to permanent CH. Newborn screening programs, established in only one-third of countries worldwide, detect CH and are cost-effective and highly sensitive and specific. During the last decade, epidemiology of CH has changed with increased frequency of thyroid in situ in primary CH. Advances in molecular testing have expanded knowledge and understanding of thyroid development and function. However, a molecular cause is identified in only 5% of CH due to thyroid dysgenesis. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical approach to the child with CH, focusing on diagnostic work-up and future challenges on optimizing thyroid replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. The review is written from the perspective of the case of 2 girls referred for CH after newborn screening and diagnosed with thyroid ectopy. The genetic work-up revealed novel mutations in TUBB1 gene, associated with large platelets and abnormal platelet physiology.
Hivatkozás stílusok: IEEEACMAPAChicagoHarvardCSLMásolásNyomtatás
2024-05-21 00:50