Mechanisms of elevated CO2-induced thermotolerance in plants: the role of phytohormones

Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Guang, Yelan; Yang, Youxin ✉; Chen, Jinyin ✉

English Survey paper (Journal Article) Scientific
  • SJR Scopus - Agronomy and Crop Science: D1
Identifiers
Subjects:
  • Biological sciences
Rising atmospheric CO2 is a key driver of climate change, intensifying drastic changes in meteorological parameters. Plants can sense and respond to changes in environmental parameters including atmospheric CO2 and temperatures. High temperatures beyond the physiological threshold can significantly affect plant growth and development and thus attenuate crop productivity. However, elevated atmospheric CO2 can mitigate the deleterious effects of heat stress on plants. Despite a large body of literature supporting the positive impact of elevated CO2 on thermotolerance, the underlying biological mechanisms and precise molecular pathways that lead to enhanced tolerance to heat stress remain largely unclear. Under heat stress, elevated CO2-induced expression of respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling play a critical role in stomatal movement, which optimizes gas exchange to enhance photosynthesis and water use efficiency. Notably, elevated CO2 also fortifies antioxidant defense and redox homeostasis to alleviate heat-induced oxidative damage. Both hormone-dependent and independent pathways have been shown to mediate high CO2-induced thermotolerance. The activation of heat-shock factors and subsequent expression of heat-shock proteins are thought to be the essential mechanism downstream of hormone and ROS signaling. Here we review the role of phytohormones in plant response to high atmospheric CO2 and temperatures. We also discuss the potential mechanisms of elevated CO2-induced thermotolerance by focusing on several key phytohormones such as ethylene. Finally, we address some limitations of our current understanding and the need for further research to unveil the yet-unknown crosstalk between plant hormones in mediating high CO2-induced thermotolerance in plants.
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2022-05-26 13:34