Roma Socioeconomic Status Has a Higher Impact on Smoking Behaviour than Genetic Susceptibility

Merzah, Mohammed; Kósa, Zsigmond [Kósa, Zsigmond (egészségtudomány), author] Védőnői Módszertani és Népegészségtani Tanszék (UD / FH / EgTudInt); Sándor, János [Sándor, János (Népegészségtan), author] Népegészség- és Járványtani Intézet (UD); Natae, Shewaye; Pikó, Péter [Pikó, Péter (Genetika), author]; Ádány, Róza [Ádány, Róza (Népegészségügy, g...), author] Népegészség- és Járványtani Intézet (UD); Fiatal, Szilvia ✉ [Fiatal, Szilvia (népegészségügy), author] Népegészség- és Járványtani Intézet (UD)

English Scientific Article (Journal Article)
  • SJR Scopus - Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis: Q2
    It is a matter of speculation whether the high prevalence of smoking among Hungarian Roma (HR) is related to genetic, gene-environmental interactions or cultural factors. Our aim is to compare the genetic susceptibility and possible effects of determinants associated with smoking behaviours in the Hungarian general (HG) and Roma populations. A complex health survey including three pillars (questionnaire, physical and laboratory examinations) was carried out (NHG = 412 and NHR = 402). Risk allele frequencies of ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared, and their combined effect was estimated by computing unweighted and weighted genetic risk scores (GRS, wGRS). The effects of genetic and environmental factors were investigated in regression analyses after confounders were introduced. Socio-economic status (SES) was calculated based on the Kuppuswamy scale 2019. Risk allele frequencies of only four SNPs were found to be different between populations (p < 0.01). Median values of GRS did not differ, while the wGRS median was slightly higher among Roma individuals (5.2 vs. 4.9; p = 0.02). Roma individuals were more likely to be heavy smokers (ORmales = 2.05, 95% CI [1.47–2.86]; ORfemales = 1.89, 95% CI [1.58–2.25]. Smokers have lower SES compared to never smokers (SES βHR = −0.039, p = 0.023; βHG = −0.010, p = 0.049). An inverse relationship was found between SES and smoking behaviours (p < 0.0001) and was found to be a better predictor of smoking behaviours than genetic susceptibility. Our study findings suggest that the high prevalence of smoking behaviours and nicotine-dependence were not revealed to have a genetic susceptibility among HR individuals; therefore, the highest efforts should be focused on targeting SES-related factors in the Roma population. Strengths of the study: This is the first study carried out to investigate and detect the most relevant factors and the possible genetic background of the extremely high prevalence of smoking based in the Roma population. Limitations of the study: No standard instrument has been used to assess the intensity of addiction to nicotine. Because of some participants’ unwillingness to define themselves as Roma, the overall HR population was not represented by the sample of this study.
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    2022-01-22 06:57