Background: The study of fungal toxins has progressed from individual toxins to a
combination of multiple toxins. Pollution survey on fungal toxins currently focuses
on single- or multiple-fungal toxins. However, co-contamination of various environmental
toxins exists in food chain, which may be potentially risky for human and animals.
Studies on the risks caused by the combined exposure of different environmental toxins
have recently been conducted. Whether a relationship exists between these different
kinds of toxins has to be determined. Therefore, the coexistence and joint toxicity
of fungal toxins and other kinds of toxicants bear research significance.Scope and
approach: We summarize a concise report on the co-contamination of fungal toxins and
typical environmental toxins (heavy metals, pesticides) in various products, evaluation
aspects, and combined effects of fungal toxins and other environmental toxins (heavy
metals, pesticides, hormones, algal toxins, bacterial toxins, etc.). Co-occurrence
of fungal toxins worldwide, particularly in baby food, is also discussed.Key finding
and conclusion: Co-contamination of fungal toxins, pesticides, and heavy metals occurs
in a wide range of products and may be passed onto infants. Significant discrepancy
in research exists, resulting from the lack of regional and systematic investigations.
More attention should be paid to susceptible populations. Emerging research become
interest in the joint effects of fungal toxins and other environmental toxins. Whether
the metabolic, transformation, and toxic pathways of fungal toxins can be affected
by other toxins requires an in-depth investigation in the future.