Plastid gene transcription: Promoters and RNA polymerases

Ortelt, J.; Link, G.

Angol nyelvű Tudományos Könyvfejezet (Könyvrészlet)
    Chloroplasts, the sites of photosynthesis and sources of reducing power, are at the core of the success story that sets apart autotrophic plants from most other living organisms. Along with their fellow organelles (e.g., amylo-, chromo-, etio-, and leucoplasts), they form a group of intracellular biosynthetic machines collectively known as plastids. These plant cell constituents have their own genome (plastome), their own (70S) ribosomes, and complete enzymatic equipment covering the full range from DNA replication via transcription and RNA processive modification to translation. Plastid RNA synthesis (gene transcription) involves the collaborative activity of two distinct types of RNA polymerases that differ in their phylogenetic origin as well as their architecture and mode of function. The existence of multiple plastid RNA polymerases is reflected by distinctive sets of regulatory DNA elements and protein factors. This complexity of the plastid transcription apparatus thus provides ample room for regulatory effects at many levels within and beyond transcription. Research in this field offers insight into the various ways in which plastid genes, both singly and groupwise, can be regulated according to the needs of the entire cell. Furthermore, it opens up strategies that allow to alter these processes in order to optimize the expression of desired gene products. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014.
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    2021-05-13 14:51