Purpose As the most abundant neuropeptides in Central Nervous System, Substance P
and Neuropeptide Y are arguably involved in the response to brain trauma. This study
aims to characterize a new concept of multi-staged neuropeptide response to TBI. Methods
This study assessed Substance P, Neuropeptide Y, S100B, standard inflammatory parameters
and ionic disturbance in TBI victims, with and without intracranial lesions, and healthy
controls. In the group with intracranial lesions, blood samples were drawn until 6
h after initial trauma, at 48 h and 7 days post-TBI. Results An early increase in
Substance P (mean 613.463 +/- 49.055 SE 6 h post-TBI with brain contusions vs. 441.441
+/- 22.572 SE pg/dL control group) is evident. Concerning TBI without intraparenchymatous
lesions, an increase in substance P is also present (825.60 +/- 23.690 SE pg/dL).
Following an initial increase and subsequent fall in NPY levels (45.997 +/- 4.96 SE
6 h post-TBI vs. 32.395 +/- 4.056 SE 48 h post-TBI vs. 19.700 +/- 1.462 SE pg/mL control
group), a late increase in NPY is obvious (43.268 +/- 6.260 SE pg/mL 7 day post-TBI).
Post-traumatic hypomagnesemia (0.754 +/- 0.015 SE 6 h post-TBI vs. 0.897 +/- 0.021
SE mmol/L control group) and a peak in S100B (95.668 +/- 14.102 SE 6 h post-TBI vs.
30.187 +/- 3.347 SE pg/mL control group) are also present. Conclusion A multi-staged
neuropeptide response to TBI is obvious and represents a potential therapeutic strategy
for the treatment of intraparenchymal lesions and cerebral edema following TBI.