Ongoing competition between bus and railway systems in European (especially in the
middle, south and east part) regional passenger transport is a current problem. Long
term sustainability and efficiency in passenger transport requires a balanced transport
policy. These subsectors need to be complement each other, not compete. The parallel
bus and railway links can result in a competition. This research explores solutions
to this issue for long term environmental and economic sustainability optimization.
Some of the important factors include the number of inhabitants to be served, public
transport availability, and efficiency in time of travel for vehicles and passengers.
To ensure long term sustainability of the presented methodology, the effect of interventions
was analyzed. The study compares Finland and Hungary in terms of the competition regional
railway and bus links.