Purpose: To describe the morphological characteristics of macular edema (ME) of different
origins using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This
article summarizes and highlights key morphologic findings, based on published articles,
describing the characteristic presentations of ME of different origins using SD-OCT.
The following pathologies were included: uveitic macular edema, pseudophakic cystoid
macular edema (PCME), diabetic macular edema (DME), macular edema secondary to central
or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO/BRVO), microcystic macular edema (MME), ME
associated with epiretinal membrane (ERM), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Conclusions:
Macular edema of different origins show characteristic patterns that are often indicative
of the underlying cause and pathology. Thus, trained algorithms may in the future
be able to automatically differentiate underlying causes and support clinical diagnosis.
Knowledge of different appearances support the clinical diagnosis and can lead to
improved and more targeted treatment of ME.