The OLYMPEX field campaign, which took place around the Olympic Mountains of Washington
State during winter 2015/16, provided data for evaluating the simulated microphysics
and precipitation over and near that barrier. Using OLYMPEX observations, this paper
assesses precipitation and associated microphysics in the WRF-ARW model over the U.S.
Pacific Northwest. Model precipitation from the University of Washington real-time
WRF forecast system during the OLYMPEX field program (November 2015-February 2016)
and an extended period (2008-18) showed persistent underprediction of precipitation,
reaching 100 mm yr(-1) over the windward side of the coastal terrain. Increasing horizontal
resolution does not substantially reduce this underprediction. Evaluating surface
disdrometer observations during the 2015/16 OLYMPEX winter, it was found that the
operational University of Washington WRF modeling system using Thompson microphysics
poorly simulated the rain drop size distribution over a windward coastal valley. Although
liquid water content was represented realistically, drop diameters were overpredicted,
and, consequently, the rain drop distribution intercept parameter was underpredicted.
During two heavy precipitation periods, WRF realistically simulated environmental
conditions, including wind speed, thermodynamic structures, integrated moisture transport,
and melting levels. Several microphysical parameterization schemes were tested in
addition to the Thompson scheme, with each exhibiting similar biases for these two
events. We show that the parameterization of aerosols over the coastal Northwest offered
only minor improvement.