BackgroundNon-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been widely used to detect common
fetal chromosome aneuploidies, such as trisomy 13, 18, and 21 (T13, T18, and T21),
and has expanded to sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) during recent years, but few
studies have reported NIPT detection of rare fetal chromosome aneuploidies (RCAs).
In this study, we evaluated the clinical practical performance of NIPT to analyze
all 24 chromosome aneuploidies among 57,204 pregnancies in the Suzhou area of China.MethodsThis
was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected NIPT data from two next-generation
sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Proton) obtained from The Affiliated Suzhou
Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. NIPT results were validated by karyotyping
or clinical follow-up.ResultsNIPT using the Illumina platform identified 586 positive
cases; fetal karyotyping and follow-up results validated 178T21 cases, 49T18 cases,
4T13 cases, and 52 SCAs. On the Proton platform, 270 cases were positive during NIPT.
Follow-up confirmed 85T21 cases, 17T18 cases, 4T13 cases, 28 SCAs, and 1 fetal chromosome
22 aneuploidy case as true positives. There were 5 false-negative results, including
4T21 and 1T18 cases. The NGS platforms showed similar sensitivities and positive predictive
values (PPVs) in detecting T21, T18, T13 and SCAs (p>0.01). However, the Proton platform
showed better specificity in detecting 45, X and the Illumina platform had better
specificity in detecting T13 (p<0.01). The major factor contributing to NIPT false-positives
on the Illumina platform was false SCAs cases (65.11%). Maternal chromosome aneuploidies,
maternal cancers, and confined placental mosaicism caused discordant results between
fetal karyotyping and NIPT.ConclusionNIPT with NGS showed good performance for detecting
T13, T18, and T21. The Proton platform had better performance for detecting SCAs,
but the NIPT accuracy rate for detecting RCAs was insufficient.