The selective infiltration of cell membranes and tissue barriers often blocks the
entry of most active molecules. This natural defense mechanism prevents the invasion
of exogenous substances and limits the therapeutic value of most available molecules.
Therefore, it is particularly important to find appropriate ways of membrane translocation
and therapeutic agent delivery to its target site. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs)
are a group of short peptides harnessed in this condition, possessing a significant
capacity for membrane transduction and could be exploited to transfer various biologically
active cargoes into the cells. Since their discovery, CPPs have been employed for
delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic molecules to treat various disorders including
cranial nerve involvement, ocular inflammation, myocardial ischemia, dermatosis and
cancer. The promising results of CPPs-derived therapeutics in various tumor models
demonstrated a potential and worthwhile scope of CPPs in chemotherapy. This review
describes the detailed description of CPPs and CPPs-assisted molecular delivery against
various tissues and organs disorders. An emphasis is focused on summarizing the novel
insights and achievements of CPPs in surmounting the natural membrane barriers during
the last 5 years.