In many aspects, the immune response against pathogens in insects is similar to the
innate immunity in mammals. This has caused a strong interest in the scientific community
for the use of this model in research of host-pathogen interactions. In recent years,
the use of Galleria mellonella larvae, an insect belonging to the Lepidoptera order,
has emerged as an excellent model to study the virulence of human pathogens. It is
a model that offers many advantages; for example, it is easy to handle and establish
in every laboratory, the larvae have a low cost, and they tolerate a wide range of
temperatures, including human temperature 37 degrees C. The immune response of G.
mellonella is innate and is divided into a cellular component (hemocytes) and humoral
component (antimicrobial peptides, lytic enzymes, and peptides and melanin) that work
together against different intruders. It has been shown that the immune response of
this insect has a great specificity and has the ability to distinguish between different
classes of microorganisms. In this review, we delve into the different components
of the innate immune response of Galleria mellonella, and how these components manifest
in the infection of fungal pathogens including Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus,
Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum.