Interest in the modulation of endocannabinoid signaling has increased since the discovery
of receptors for compounds of Cannabis sativa. Endocannabinoids are crucial neuromodulators
of many brain functions and changes in the ligands and their receptors have been associated
with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Genetic, neuroimaging, and behavioral
studies have reinforced the role of endocannabinoids in the pathobiology of schizophrenia.
However, molecular pathways and biological processes involved in cannabinoid effects
are not totally understood. Additionally, the endocannabinoid signaling network with
other non-cannabinoid targets, and the effects of phytocannabinoids increase the complexity
to understand their role in schizophrenia and homeostasis conditions. Thus, proteomic
studies can provide evidence about the involvement of cannabinoid receptors, as well
as the metabolic and synthetic enzymes of the endocannabinoids in these disorders.
Additionally, quantification of endocannabinoids in the blood serum or cerebrospinal
fluid can be a useful approach to identify new biomarkers in schizophrenia, and lipidomic
techniques can be used to quantify these compounds. Herein, the authors review proteomic
and lipidomic studies that have been used for analysis of the endocannabinoid system
in healthy and schizophrenia function. The findings may contribute to understand the
involvement of endocannabinoids in the brain and in the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia.