INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced movement disorders (DIMDs) can be elicited by several kinds
of pharmaceutical agents. The major groups of offending drugs include antidepressants,
antipsychotics, antiepileptics, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, mood stabilisers
and gastrointestinal drugs among others. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews literature
covering each movement disorder induced by commercially available pharmaceuticals.
Considering the magnitude of the topic, only the most prominent examples of offending
agents were reported in each paragraph paying a special attention to the brief description
of the pathomechanism and therapeutic options if available. EXPERT OPINION: As the
treatment of some DIMDs is quite challenging, a preventive approach is preferable.
Accordingly, the use of the offending agents should be strictly limited to appropriate
indications and they should be applied in as low doses and as short duration as the
patient's condition allows. As most of DIMDs are related to an unspecific adverse
action of medications in the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, future research should
focus on better characterisation of the neurochemical profile of the affected functional
systems, in addition to the development of drugs with higher selectivity and better