Dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES) refers to an abnormal pattern of elimination
of unknown etiology characterized by bowel and bladder incontinence and withholding.
School-aged children with DES had a higher prevalence of previous urinary tract infections
and congenital vesicoureteral reflux. Urinary incontinence in children may be caused
by a congenital anatomical or neurological abnormality. Many children, however, do
not have such an obvious cause for their incontinence and they are referred to as
having functional incontinence. Functional urinary incontinence in children may be
due to disturbances of the filling phase, the voiding phase or a combination of both.
When incontinence is the result of urethral overactivity during voiding the term dysfunctional
voiding is used.