Objective: The importance of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) is widely
known in classical and folk medicine, with the largest group of its
effective substances forming the essential oil (chamazulene,
alpha-bisabolol, trans-beta-farnesene, spathulenol,
cis/trans-en-in-dicycloethers). The increasing need for plant-derived
high quality drugs cannot be provided by their collection in the
Method A: To preserve the genome of Szabadkigyos wild type having high
(-)-alpha-bisabolol content, we used biotechnological methods.
Results: The roots of organized culture contained beta-eudesmol, which
we have identified in the intact roots. Our gas-chromatographic and
mass-spectroscopic studies showed that sterile chamomile cultures
generated the most important terpenoid and polyin compounds
characteristics of the intact plant. We identified berkheyaradulene,
geranyl-isovalerate and cedrol, as new components in these cultures.
Magnesium (Mg) (370 and 740 mg/l MgSO4) has a positive effect on the
growth of organized cultures and also on the quality and quantity of
essential oil production.
Method B: Another possible source of variants is available by the
genetic transformation of organized cultures by infection with
Agrobacterium rhisogenes. With this method, we cultivated chamomile
infected by A4-Y clone and investigated the essential oil production by
hairy root cultures cultivated on solid and liquid MS B-5 media. The
main component of the essential oil of hairy root cultures was
Results: We identified a-selinene, as a new component in these hairy
roots. We studied the growth rate of A4-Y clone on the cited media,
containing MgSO4 concentrations: 0; 185; 370 and 740 mg/l. The cultures
grew most in medium containing 740 mg/l of MgSO4. Essential oil content
was compared from hairy root cultures of different Mg containing media
and measured by GC and GC-MS methods. Mg has a similar effect on hairy
roots as on organized cultures.